Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joint.
Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth and are generally inherited.
Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal disorders.
Neoplastic disorders, usually called tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue and may be benign or malignant.
Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries.
Xanthomas of the Achilles Tendon
Xanthomas are cholesterol deposits that appear in the Achilles tendon. High cholesterol levels can cause the formation of these cholesterol deposits, which appear as small lumps. Aside from treating the underlying cholesterol problem, treatment for xanthomas may require taking a biopsy of the lesion but leaving the nodules intact.
Osteochondritis is a lesion that usually causes pain and stiffness of the ankle joint and affects all age groups. Osteochondritis is caused by a twisting-type injury to the ankle. Symptoms include swelling and ankle pain.
Immobilization of the foot and ankle for a period of time usually resolves the problem. In more severe cases, however, surgery may be prescribed. During the surgery, loose fragments of cartilage and bone are removed from the ankle joint and, in some cases, small drill holes are made in the defect to stimulate new blood vessels and help form scar tissue that will fill the defect.